Divided into four topographical regions: coastal lowlands, interior lowlands, dissected uplands, and residuals of ancient mountains. The coastal lowlands, located on the state’s eastern edge, extend from the Atlantic Ocean 30–50 mi (48–80 km) inland and include Cape Cod and the offshore islands.
Jagged indented coast around Cape Cod; flatland yields to stony upland pastures near central region and gentle hill country in the west; land in the west is rocky, sandy and not fertile.
There are over 4,000 miles of rivers within Massachusetts. Major rivers include the Connecticut, (the longest river in New England) the Merrimack in the northeast corner, and the Housatonic in the far west.
More than 1,000 small lakes and ponds are found within the state, with the largest being the Quabbin Reservoir (27,794 acres).